【清華大學英語語言學概論歷年解答】

轉學考解答-清華大學英語語言學概論91年度

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1. Please find the answer by yourself.

 

 

2. Please find the answer by yourself.

 

 

3. Once, long ago, a beautiful lady was walking through

 

a forest and came upon a large dragon. She screamed

 

and ran to the nearest village, where she found a wizard,

 

a boy of twelve by the name of Harry Potter.

 

 

4.

a. Smith suggests Jones to do the work another day first,

 

and then tells him it's time to go.

 

b. The direct speech act is reminding; however,

 

the indirect speech act is a request.

 

That is, in fact, Smith wants Jones to leave immediately.

 

c. Smith directly asks Jones to leave.

 

The use of indirectness in b is a better way to avoid quarrel.

 

In a and c, Smith uses direct speech to request Jones to go,

 

which is likely to threaten Jones' negative face,

 

and cause quarrel easily.

 

 

5.

a. [tS] b. [N] c. [f] d. [?]

 

 

6.

a. Palatalization: Palatalization is a term used in phonology

 

to refer to the articulation using the tongue touching

 

the hard palate.

 

It is a kind of assimilation that an affected sound becomes

 

like its neighboring sound. For example, /s/→[S]/__ [i].

 

The stop undergoes palatalization

 

when it occurs before the high front vowel.

 

b. Epenthesis: Epenthesis occurs in phonology to

 

refer to the appearance of the insertion,

 

such as glottal stop insertion.

 

Dance, /dQns/→[dQnts];[t] occurs

 

when it is between a nasal and a stop; moreover,

 

the place of the stop is determined

 

by the preceding nasal's place.

 

c. Dissimilation: Dissimilation is a term used in phonology

 

to refer to a situation

 

that one sound affect its neighboring sound,

 

and the two sounds become less alike.

 

For example, /T/→[t]/ when it is before another fricative,

 

the word "fifth" /f‥fT/→[f‥ft].

 

 

7.

im- occurs when the first sound of the stem is [+bilabial];

 

il- occurs when the first sound of the stem is [+lateral];

 

ir- occurs when the first sound of the stem is [+rhotics];

 

iN- occurs when the first sound of the stem is [+velar];

 

in- occurs elsewhere.

 

 

8.

a. referent: It denotes someone or something

 

that an expression refers to.

 

b. prescriptive grammar: It corrects the speaker,

 

and tells us how we should use the grammar of language.

 

c. clitic: It can't stand alone, and has to attach to a word.

 

The difference between clitic

 

and affix is the former has looser attachment to the stem.

 

d. competence: What a native speaker knows his language,

 

including syntax,phonology, phonetics,

 

morphology, semantics, and so on.

 

e. derived morphology: It is one kind of word formation.

 

The derived affixes includes -ment, -tion, de-, im-,

 

and so on, which will change part of speech

 

and meaning of the word.

 

f. infix: It is a kind of word formation,

 

and infix is not occur in English.

 

Infix is used as affixes added within a stem.

 

g. content word:

 

Content words focus on the lexical meaning rather

 

than the grammatical function, including nouns,

 

verbs, adverbs, and adjectives.

 

h. anaphora: Anaphora is a given knowledge,

 

and it has the antecedent occurred

 

before to refer to the same referent.

 

 

9.

a. homophony: For example, bare and bear.

 

The two words have the same sounds phonetically.

 

b. a sentence that is lexically ambiguous:

 

For example, the ball is very interesting.

 

The "ball" is lexically ambiguous,

 

and can be explained as a round object, or a party.

 

c. a presupposition:

 

For example, I realized I was overweight.

 

No matter how I confirm or deny the statement, it is a fact that I was overweight then.

 

d. entailment: For example, I am a student of NTIT. The sentence entails that I am a student.

 

 

10.

The patient of Broca's aphasia has halting speech,

 

and the speech often lacks function words.

 

Moreover, the words usually display the lack of inflections.

 

On the other hand,

 

the patient of Wernicke's aphasia has very influent speech,

 

but the meaning is nonsense.

 

Broca's aphasia is about productive disorder

 

while Wernicke's aphasia is about receptive disorder.

 

 

11. The student prepared for the test very diligently.

                                 IP

                                     I′

                           NP   I    VP

                     D     N′        V′

                   The    N         V′

                                                       ADVP

                       student      V      PP

                                 prepared      p′  advP   adv′

                                               p    NP

                                      for            N′  very    adv

                                               D

                                            the       N         diligently

                                                            test


12.

Humans have language, but animals don't have language,

 

because we have displacement.

 

That is, we can talk about things here and now

 

or things happened before.

 

Moreover, we have productivity and creativity

 

in language to make novel sentences we have not heard before.

 

Third, we have cultural transmission by language and writing.

 

 

13. Please find the answer by yourself.

 

 

14. The teacher knows who the student talked to.

IP

        I′

NP

       I     VP

     N′

D           V′

The  N  V  CP

   teacher knows NPi C′

                          C IP

                    who       I′

                          NP  I  VP

                     D   N′      V′

                                V    PP

                    the   N talked p′

                                    p  NP

                       student

                                 to     ti

wh-movement

 

資料來源:PTT轉考板zookeeper

 

 

蜜兒碎碎念:

 求學的過程中總有挫折,但那不是盡頭~

 只是在提醒你,該堅持,還是該轉彎了。

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