1. Please find the answer by yourself.
2. Please find the answer by yourself.
3. Once, long ago, a beautiful lady was walking through
a forest and came upon a large dragon. She screamed
and ran to the nearest village, where she found a wizard,
a boy of twelve by the name of Harry Potter.
a. Smith suggests Jones to do the work another day first,
and then tells him it's time to go.
b. The direct speech act is reminding; however,
the indirect speech act is a request.
That is, in fact, Smith wants Jones to leave immediately.
c. Smith directly asks Jones to leave.
The use of indirectness in b is a better way to avoid quarrel.
In a and c, Smith uses direct speech to request Jones to go,
which is likely to threaten Jones' negative face,
and cause quarrel easily.
a. [tS] b. [N] c. [f] d. [?]
a. Palatalization: Palatalization is a term used in phonology
to refer to the articulation using the tongue touching
the hard palate.
It is a kind of assimilation that an affected sound becomes
like its neighboring sound. For example, /s/→[S]/__ [i].
The stop undergoes palatalization
when it occurs before the high front vowel.
b. Epenthesis: Epenthesis occurs in phonology to
refer to the appearance of the insertion,
such as glottal stop insertion.
Dance, /dQns/→[dQnts];[t] occurs
when it is between a nasal and a stop; moreover,
the place of the stop is determined
by the preceding nasal's place.
c. Dissimilation: Dissimilation is a term used in phonology
to refer to a situation
that one sound affect its neighboring sound,
and the two sounds become less alike.
For example, /T/→[t]/ when it is before another fricative,
the word "fifth" /f‥fT/→[f‥ft].
im- occurs when the first sound of the stem is [+bilabial];
il- occurs when the first sound of the stem is [+lateral];
ir- occurs when the first sound of the stem is [+rhotics];
iN- occurs when the first sound of the stem is [+velar];
in- occurs elsewhere.
a. referent: It denotes someone or something
that an expression refers to.
b. prescriptive grammar: It corrects the speaker,
and tells us how we should use the grammar of language.
c. clitic: It can't stand alone, and has to attach to a word.
The difference between clitic
and affix is the former has looser attachment to the stem.
d. competence: What a native speaker knows his language,
including syntax,phonology, phonetics,
morphology, semantics, and so on.
e. derived morphology: It is one kind of word formation.
The derived affixes includes -ment, -tion, de-, im-,
and so on, which will change part of speech
and meaning of the word.
f. infix: It is a kind of word formation,
and infix is not occur in English.
Infix is used as affixes added within a stem.
g. content word:
Content words focus on the lexical meaning rather
than the grammatical function, including nouns,
verbs, adverbs, and adjectives.
h. anaphora: Anaphora is a given knowledge,
and it has the antecedent occurred
before to refer to the same referent.
a. homophony: For example, bare and bear.
The two words have the same sounds phonetically.
b. a sentence that is lexically ambiguous:
For example, the ball is very interesting.
The "ball" is lexically ambiguous,
and can be explained as a round object, or a party.
c. a presupposition:
For example, I realized I was overweight.
No matter how I confirm or deny the statement, it is a fact that I was overweight then.
d. entailment: For example, I am a student of NTIT. The sentence entails that I am a student.
The patient of Broca's aphasia has halting speech,
and the speech often lacks function words.
Moreover, the words usually display the lack of inflections.
On the other hand,
the patient of Wernicke's aphasia has very influent speech,
but the meaning is nonsense.
Broca's aphasia is about productive disorder
while Wernicke's aphasia is about receptive disorder.
11. The student prepared for the test very diligently.
NP I VP
D N′ V′
The N V′
student V PP
prepared p′ advP adv′
for N′ very adv
the N diligently
Humans have language, but animals don't have language,
because we have displacement.
That is, we can talk about things here and now
or things happened before.
Moreover, we have productivity and creativity
in language to make novel sentences we have not heard before.
Third, we have cultural transmission by language and writing.
13. Please find the answer by yourself.
14. The teacher knows who the student talked to.
The N V CP
teacher knows NPi C′
NP I VP
D N′ V′
the N talked p′