(4) [-nasal, -lateral ]
/z/↗[s] / [+consonantal, -voice] __ ﹟
→["z]/ [+consonantal, +strident, -labial] __﹟
↘[z] / elsewhere
1. Soup doesn't belong to the group because while the rest of
the group share the property of being object, soup denotes liquid.
2. Swim doesn't belong to the group because while the rest of
the group take place on the ground, swim occurs in water.
3. Dead doesn't belong to the group because while the rest of
the group describe a living man,
dead denotes a man who passed away.
4. Chalk is different from the rest of the group. The rest of
the group are printed paper bound together
while chalk is used to write on blackboard.
5. I have no idea.
Greek: tragedy, theater
Latin: logic, agenda
Synthetic language is a language whose words are made up of
free morphemes and bound affixes.
By studying the bound affixes,
we can know the grammatical function of the word.
That is, in old English, though the word order is disturbed,
we still can know which is the subject, and which is the object.
In analytic language, it builds up the sentence's meaning
by the combination of free morphemes,
and it rarely uses bound affixes.
In modern English, we have to know the meaning by the word order.
For example, the dog chases the cat,
we know it is the dog doing the action; if the sentence is
---the cat chases the dog, it is the cat chasing the dog.
We have to know the meaning by the word order.
However, in old English, we don't Oa.
[t] and [d] are allophones of the same phoneme./t/→[d]/ V__V.
[n] and [N] are also allophones of the same phoneme.
/n/→[N]/ __ [+consonantal, +velar].
Either the first one or the second is a kind of assimilation.
The first one.
1. V +ment (establish +ment, apart +ment );
V +ion (transact +ion, adopt +ion)
2. en+ N (en+ amor, en+ cage); de+ N (de+ gas, de+ germ)
3. V +ful (hope +ful, harm +ful); V +less (use +less, reck +less)
4. A +ness (sad +ness, black +ness);
A+ist (kinetic +ist, eugenic +ist)
5. im+ A (im +possible, im +polite);
dis+ V (dis+ appear, dis+ affect)
Syntactically, given the data above,
we will have the following conclusion.
First, in the imperative sentence,
the subject allowed in the clause must be "you."
As a result, (m) and (p) are ill-formed.
Second, the subject, you, can be omitted in the imperative sentence.
Third, the reflexive must be "yourself."
As a result, (c), (f), (h), (k), and (o) are ungrammatical.
Fourth, the pronoun should be in the reflexive form,
so (e) is not allowed.
Finally, the tense of the imperative must be present;
therefore, (g) is not permissible.
Semantically, because the omitted subject
and the reflexive pronoun should refer to
the same person within one clause,
the reflexive must be "yourself."
That is why (c), (f), (h), (k), and (o) are not allowed.
Let me explain specifically, for example in (c): Take care of himself!
The reflexive should find a proper antecedent within one clause;
that is, the subject with [+third person, +male, - plural].
However, we have known the subject of the imperative must be YOU,
so it is impossible to find a proper subject for "himself."
Then, why (e) is ungrammatical?
That is because if the subject and the following pronoun refer to
the same person, the pronoun should become reflexive.
Moreover, only dynamic verbs have the imperative:
*know [+state] the answer is ill-formed.